Passover is a highly experiential holiday, a time when we typically come together with family, friends, and the rest of our community in celebration of our Judaism – remembering our past and anticipating our future. For some families, this is the one time of year when they join together in person to share traditions, tell stories, and create lasting memories.
This year, the continued COVID-19 pandemic means that my not choose to share physical spaces – but modern technology has taught us to gather virtually, so that we may still create the experiences that achieve so many of the intentions of the holiday. As Rabbi Rick Jacobs wrote:
“Passover  began the urgent quest to reinvent much of Jewish life – and even when we get to reconnect in-person, our synagogues and our lives will never fully return to the way things were. Yet the pandemic has highlighted that some of the ways we ‘do’ Judaism needed to be updated. This year has been a powerful catalyst to thoughtful shifts in how we perform our holy work, and we’ve heeded the adage that a crisis is a terrible thing to waste.
As you, our congregational leaders, continue to navigate new and ever-changing realities, we’re again sharing resources to help you re-imagine your community’s traditions and incorporate digital content to enliven your virtual or hybrid seder.
This multi-part resource addresses elements of the seder experience from choosing a Haggadah all the way to saying “Next year, in Jerusalem” together. Each section includes a few curated pieces of digital content (including videos, activity ideas, discussion guides, and more) that you can pick and choose in order to create a fun, engaging, meaningful, and memory-making virtual Passover experience.
1. Choosing a Haggadah
The most important part of the story is the way you tell the story – your framing, your intention, the way you want people to feel… These considerations will help you decide which Haggadah is right for you – and circumstances may even present the opportunity for you to use more than one!
- Reform Haggadot and Other Passover Resources: CCAR Press shares discounted Haggadot (both print and online), free flipbooks, and more to help you lead virtual Passover celebrations and allow seder guests to follow along from afar. This beautiful Haggadah will enliven your seder even more, plus a video series on the poetry and prayer of the Haggadah to help you dig deeper.
- Kid-Friendly Haggadot: These eight great Haggadot have been recommended by Jewish educators as being imaginative, accessible, and child-friendly but not childish.
2. Setting the Atmosphere
Passover celebrates the story of the Jewish community’s transformation into a free and liberated people. Our celebration of this holiday is a joyous one, and the seder itself is intended to share the Exodus story with generations, from the youngest to the oldest.
This is the chance to create a learning experience par excellence. Your seder can be fun and interactive, inspiring questions and evoking memories – while creating new ones, too. Dive into the chance play with the seder, argue, celebrate, inspire, and, most of all, create meaning.
- Seder Videos: The URJ has collaborated with Reform leaders from North America and the UK to provide a set of videos to accompany your Passover festivities. Each video is 2-6 minutes long and contains blessings, songs, and insights that perfectly supplement any seder.
- Virtual Backgrounds: Change up the visual experience for your seder guests. You can stick with one, or change periodically depending on the step of the seder you have reached.
- Perfect Passover Playlists: Use these curated Spotify playlists to help create atmosphere throughout your seder. They include songs that are perfect for your youngest participants, as well as old-time, family-friendly favorites.
- A Shalom Sesame Parody Video: “Les Matzarables” will surely get everyone in the mood for the excitement of the seder! Join with familiar, furry characters as they sing about Passover to a tune reminiscent of the song "Master of the House" from the classic Les Miserables.
- Easy Seder Activities You Haven’t Tried Yet: No need to do things the same way you always have (unless you want to, of course). These creative, experiential ideas will enliven the whole seder experience
- What have you learned, seen, experienced, or appreciated in other worship or programming that would be valuable to include in your seder?"
- How would you like people to prepare to join this seder?
- What is making your table festive?
- What could you do to welcome and connect people participating in this seder?
- What is exciting about your seder this year? Why? How can it feel similar to, or different from, last year’s Passover experiences?
- Which symbol on the seder plate is the most important to you? Why?
3. Kadeish: Sanctification
Reciting the special Passover Kiddush blessing over the wine is one of the ways we make the moment holy. We lift up the first cup of wine (or juice) to remember our exodus from Egypt and taste the sweetness of freedom.
- Passover Evening Kiddush (Weekday Version): Help your community prepare by sharing this link in advance of the seder, which will help guests become more familiar with the blessing and follow along.
- A Social Justice Reading on the Four Cups: With each cup of wine, this reading asks us to think about our own ability to create redemptive change in the world.
- Traditionally, wine is intended to signify joy. What makes this seder joyful for you?
- As we chant the first blessing, we sanctify the day. What is sacred about this time?
- Customarily we recline to left while blessing the wine to celebrate the luxury of freedom. What freedom are you celebrating?
4. Karpas: Greens / Vegetable
The first time we eat during the seder (and our first truly Passover-like ritual) is the dipping of greens into saltwater. Saltwater is a significant part of our story, a reminder of the tears shed during slavery and for enslaved people.
But dipping the greens – the first shoots of spring, which always return, whether we witness their budding or not – are signs of hope amid dark times. Hope emerges, even while damp with tears.
- Karpas symbolizes hope for the future. Jewish tradition always embraces hope, even during uncertain times. What are you hopeful about? Why?
- What experiences in your life have given you hope? When were you successful in a struggle to change? What did you learn from the experience?
5. Magid: The Story
Passover tells the story of the Jewish people’s journey from slavery to freedom, narrating the story of the Exodus from Egypt and describing each of the ritual items and their purpose.
This is when we ask the Four Questions – and then, in the rest of the Magid, we answer those questions in some the most popularly known elements of the seder.
- The Passover Story in 10 Scenes: Journey through the story of the Exodus with PJ Library’s beautiful, artistic animation and easy-to-follow narration.
- Ha Lachma: Rabbi Emily Meyer and Musician Chava Mirel offer an imaginative representation of Ha Lachma Anya, bringing you deep into the meaning of this invitation we offer in welcoming everyone to our seder tables.
- An Animated Song about Siblings: BimBam’s catchy music video tells the story of siblings Moses, Miriam, and Aaron and their familial devotion to one another; it also includes the crossing of the Sea of Reeds.
- Kids Retell the Passover Story: In this fun video, young children tell the Exodus story in their own words – with a few twists.
- 10 Great Discussion Topics: One of the most important elements of the seder is our commitment to the continuous act of asking questions – a reminder of our freedom. Here’s a list of imaginative questions to get guests thinking all seder long.
- Write Your Own Passover Poetry: Using the model of six-word poetry to foster creative storytelling, invite your guests to write their own and share with the group.
- What moment in the Exodus story would you love to be able to transport yourself into and experience with the Israelites? Why?
- Where do you see bravery in this story?
- Why is it important to retell this story every year? How does the Exodus story shape your outlook on the world?
6. The Four Questions
One of the highlights of the seder is when we ask the Four Questions, typically sung by the youngest seder guest.
Using the refrain, “Why is this night different from all other nights?” each question leads us to consider what makes this moment of remembering our exodus from Egypt so special.
- A Four Questions Printout: Help everyone follow along and participate by emailing, screen-sharing, or printing of this simple but valuable PDF, which includes Hebrew/Aramaic, translation, and transliteration.
- An Audio Track of The Four Questions: Sing the Four Questions together with this mp3 version and/or encourage guests to follow along with a printout of the words. You can even get creative and share your own images.
- A Four Questions Singalong: This animated BimBam video isn’t just for kids! The "bouncing ball" helps everyone follow along with Hebrew, English, and transliteration. (Scroll to the bottom of the page for the video.)
- Four Questions on Racial Justice: In this seder insert, clergy and teachers from diverse backgrounds address racial justice through the lens of the Four Questions.
- Four Questions on Immigration Reform: These thought-provoking questions encourage us to consider our own history as immigrants and how we can fulfill the legacy of the Passover seder today.
- The seder is all about invoking curiosity. What are some questions you’re asking tonight?
- Which of the Four Questions resonates most strongly with you this year? Why?
- It is traditional for the youngest person at the seder to ask the Four Questions. If you were to create a new tradition for the asking of the Four Questions, who would you choose to ask the questions? Why?
7. The Four Children
Throughout our history, the Four Children of the Passover story have sparked conversation, artistic renderings, songs, debates, and more.
This important moment in the seder – a moment of stereotypes and truths, educational philosophies and parenting insights – can invite everyone into conversation about ourselves as children, as adults, and as members of a community tasked with leading new generations into the future.
- An Animated Telling of the Four Sons: Sophisticated, clever animation brings to life the Four Children (here called the Four Sons) in an engaging and accessible way.
- The Four Children: A Racial Justice Haggadah Insert: Use this resource to spark conversation about the importance of racial justice in your family’s Passover seder.
- The Four Children of Star Wars: Take a fun foray into “a galaxy far, far away,” where beloved Star Wars characters illustrate each of the traditional Four Children.
- The Four Children of Climate Change: This piece, which can be read aloud or individually, draws parallels between the Four Children and the way people think about climate change.
- The Four Children could be perceived as four personalities within one person. When and how do you see yourself as each of these children?
- One way to look at the text is very literally: In our lives, each of us knows people who embody each of these four attributes, or who display them with some regularity. Who in your life might be wise, wicked, simple, or unsure how to ask?
8. The Ten Plagues
Our freedom from slavery came only after great suffering on the part of the Egyptian people in the form of the Ten Plagues.
God brought the plagues against the Egyptian people with the potential that each could lead to the Israelites’ freedom. Instead, each plague led only to another until, finally, the ultimate plague: Death of the Firstborn.
To honor the weight of the terrible suffering brought upon the Egyptian people, we pour out a drop of wine for each of the Ten Plagues, each one signifying the cost of our celebration.
- Ten Plagues of Inequality: This modern-day reimagining of Ten Plagues encourages us to think about issues of climate change, gun violence, and criminal justice reform – and agitates us to work for change.
- A Prayer and a Poem for Refugee: These moving words about the refugee experience urges us to consider our people’s history and our responsibility to respond to the current refugee crisis.
- What makes you uncomfortable about the Ten Plagues? Why?
- How can we understand the celebration of our own freedom in light of the pain that the plagues caused others? On a personal level, how do we reconcile celebrating when members of our community are suffering?
- Today, people around the world are still suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic. How is this experience impacting you?
Dayenu, it should have been enough… but then there was more.
Particularly in times of stress, this moment in the seder, full of singing and simple repetition, can be a stark reminder of the importance (and the challenge) of practicing gratitude.
What might have been enough… until another meaningful moment appeared around the next corner? How can we see our time of gathering for seder as Dayenu, when we received a moment of grace, when perhaps we thought we’d had enough?
- “Dayenu” with BimBam and Jason Mesches: Use this engaging video as background music or as the main attraction when you sing the classic Passover song at your own seder.
- What are you grateful for this year? Why?
- What moments of gratitude can you share – even on the days when you feel like you’ve had enough?
- Throughout the last year, what have you learned about yourself and your awareness to find gratitude even in difficult times?
- If you could add a verse to “Dayenu” this year, what would it be?
10. Maror, Charoset, and Koreich
In ancient times, the Talmudic scholar Hillel ate lamb, matzah, and bitter herbs together to symbolize the interconnectedness of slavery and freedom.
Today, we honor this tradition at our seder by making the famous koreich, also known as the “Hillel Sandwich.” Between two pieces of matzah, we combine sweet charoset (which represents the mortar used to build the pyramid) and maror (bitter herbs), a reminder not to forget the relationship between bitter and sweet.
- A Little More about Maror: Hanan Harchol’s animated video offers a compelling introduction to the idea of maror – what happens when we experience bitterness and then have the opportunity to think about how to respond
- Podcast: "Lift Up Your Eyes": With your seder guests, listen to this short story about how to experience bitterness and pain in a way that can be miraculous, good, beautiful, sweet, and even holy.
- Texas-Style Charoset: Share this recipe with guests in advance for a classic Ashkenazi charoset recipe… with a little Lone Star State twist!
- A Seder Activity about Freedom: How else might we create the sweetness and bitterness represented by the Hillel Sandwich? This list encourages you to think about food combinations that might create similar experiences. Poll your guests to see which combinations they may want to try next year.
- We eat the bitter herbs twice before eating the meal. How does tasting the bitterness increase our enjoyment of the sweet?
- Has there been an experience in your life that was bitter at first but, in retrospect, feels sweet?
- When in your life have you experienced bitter and sweet concurrently? What, if anything, did you learn from this experience?
- What are the origins of your favorite charoset recipe?
11. Shulchan Oreich: Eating the Festive Meal
It’s finally time to enjoy our festive meals!
While some of us may be sitting together and ate the same food around the same table, others may be eating different meals at different tables in different places. Regardless, but we’re still able to come together as a community.
There’s more to do after the meal, so check back later to complete the seder. B’tayavon (and, pssst: Try not to chew too loudly into your microphone).
- Our Story, Your Table: We’ve put together a collection of twelve delicious recipes from around the world that will inspire conversation—and second helpings!—at your table in this free e-book.
- Passover Recipes: This treasure trove of recipes includes dishes from around the world, giving you lots of new ideas for your seder and for the rest of the week, as well. Send this link to guests in advance to encourage them to try a new recipe this year, too.
- What’s your go-to main course on Passover? Why do you return to this dish year after year?
- Share a story about a dish on your seder table.
12. Finding the Afikoman
At the start of the seder, we broke the middle piece of our three pieces of matzah, removing half and wrapping the larger section in a separate cloth to serve as the afikoman, the “dessert” matzah that will mark the official end of the seder.
Hiding the afikoman for young people to search for and find at the end of the seder is a highlight of the holiday – and yet another example of how the rabbis designed the seder to be interactive and experiential. Kids will stay awake throughout the seder if a game (and maybe a prize) awaits them!
- Dog vs. Afikoman: You may not all be able to search for the afikoman together – but that doesn't mean you can't have fun with the ritual. Share this video and see what you think!
- Though the afikoman represents our liberation from slavery, other types of slavery and oppression still persist today. What will you commit to this year to support the liberation of those oppressed by other forms of bondage?
- The afikoman reminds us that what is broken can be repaired, and what is lost can be found. What are some things you hope to find and repair before we meet again for seder in 2023?
- What strategy did you use to find the afikoman? What skills did you use?
13. Hallel, Elijah, and Miriam: Moments of Praise and Hope
With our stomachs full, we spend a few moments offering our praise and gratitude – for God, and for freedom.
This is also a moment when we recognize Miriam, a leader of the Jewish people in her own right, for helping to protect Moses as an infant and leading the Israelites in song after crossing the Red Sea.
We also welcome to our table the prophet Elijah, a symbol of redemption and a harbinger of a messianic age when the world will be healed.
- Podcast: “Small Things”: Elijah represents a hopefulness for the future, a redemptive time to come – but we cannot arrive at that time without everyone doing the work of redemption. Listen to this short story, then invite guests to share their own stories of small actions that make a big difference.
- Raising Up Miriam: This poem by Ruth H. Sohn raises up the voice of Miriam, which helps us to remember the power of belief, miracles, and song.
- We open the door to welcome Elijah in order to usher in hope for the future. What do you think Elijah needs to bring this year?
- What will we do this year to help bring hope to the world?
- What can we do to share praise, like Miriam?
14. Nirtzah: Looking Ahead
The final step in the seder is the song “B’shanah Habaah B’Yerushalayim (Next Year in Jerusalem).” We conclude the evening with hope for the future and for increased healing in the world – and with our own commitment to strive to create a better and more complete world in the year to come.
This is the time in the seder when we sing classic songs like “Chad Gaya (One Kid Goat),” an allegory for the reality of consequences.
- An Uplifting Final Perspective: Whether you encourage people to read this piece on their own or separate it into parts to share aloud together, it takes a thoughtful, hopeful look at what it might mean to say "Next year in Jerusalem."
- Now What? Finish off your seder with this video from BimBam, which teaches the how and why of counting the Omer from now until the holiday of Shavuot.
- We conclude our seder looking toward next year. What do you hope for next year's Passover?
Visit ReformJudaism.org/homeseder for an adapted version of this resource created for use by congregants or for anyone who would like to run their own virtual seder.