Constitution and Bylaws

The constitution adopted at the 39th Council of the Union, March 3-6, 1946, and all subsequent amendments.

Adopted at the 39th Council of the Union, March 3-6, 1946
Amended at the 40th General Assembly, November 15, 1948
Further amended at the 42nd General Assembly, April 19, 1953
Further amended at the 43rd General Assembly, February 13-16, 1955
Further amended at the 44th General Assembly, April 28-May 2, 1957
Further amended at the 45th General Assembly, November 14-19, 1959
Further amended at the 46th General Assembly, November 12-15, 1961
Further amended at the 47th General Assembly, November 17-20, 1963
Further amended at the 48th General Assembly, November 14-17, 1965
Further amended at the 49th General Assembly, November 12-15, 1967
Further amended at the 50th General Assembly, October 25-29, 1969
Further amended at the 51st General Assembly, November 5-9, 1971
Further amended at the 52nd General Assembly, November 9-13, 1973
Further amended at the 54th General Assembly, November 18-22, 1977
Further amended at the 62nd General Assembly, October 21-25, 1993
Further amended at the 63rd General Assembly, November 29-December 3, 1995
Further amended at the 64th General Assembly, October 29-November 2, 1997
Further amended at the 66th General Assembly, December 5-9, 2001
Further amended at the 67th General Assembly, November 5-9, 2003
Further amended at the 68th General Assembly, November 16-20, 2005
Further amended at the 71st General Assembly, December 14-18, 2011
Further amended at the 73rd General Assembly, December 4-8, 2015
Further amended at the 76th General Assembly, January 9, 2022


Preamble

The congregations represented in this Union for Reform Judaism affirm their faithful attachment to Judaism and their adherence to its liberal interpretation and unite to discharge their responsibilities under the protection of benign Providence.


Constitution

ARTICLE I. NAME

This organization is and will be known as the Union for Reform Judaism (hereinafter referred to as the URJ).

ARTICLE II. MISSION STATEMENT

(1) To promote the enrichment and growth of Judaism through Reform Jewish congregations.

(2) To foster the vibrancy of Reform Judaism through Torah (lifelong Jewish education), avodah (worship of God through prayer and observance), and gemilut chasadim (the pursuit of justice, peace, and deeds of loving-kindness).

3) To support Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, enabling it to train rabbis, cantors, educators, and other professionals and scholars who are essential to the spiritual and educational life of our religious community.

(4) To be supportive of the State of Israel and the Jewish people and foster the development of Liberal and Progressive Judaism worldwide under the auspices of the World Union for Progressive Judaism.

ARTICLE III. MEMBERSHIP

  1. Any Jewish congregation or other Jewish entity in the United States of America, Canada, or their territories or possessions, upon approval by the North American Board, may become a member of the URJ by subscribing to its Constitution and Bylaws.
     
  2. The URJ Chair shall appoint a Membership Committee which shall be duly representative of the congregations and the institutions of the Movement to review the system established in the Bylaws by which the congregations provide financial support to the URJ and the College-Institute.  This Membership Committee shall review the entire system of financial support and make recommendations to ensure that the system is duly reflective of the financial health of the congregations and the overall needs of the URJ and the College-Institute.  Subject to the approval of the Executive Board, the Membership Committee shall establish policies and procedures governing the foregoing system, shall monitor compliance with such policies and procedures, and shall make recommendations to the Executive Board as to when changes in the foregoing system should be made.
     
  3. In the event that a congregation is not in compliance with the Bylaws of the URJ with respect to payments and after a reasonable period of time in which to cure such noncompliance, the URJ Chair, after consultation with the URJ President, may recommend to the Executive Board that notice be given to the congregation of the intention to recommend suspension from of all or part of the services received by the congregation from the URJ.  Such notice will be issued upon approval by the Executive Board.  If, within thirty (30) days of the receipt of notice, such congregation requests a hearing, one will be granted and held by the Executive Board or a subcommittee thereof.  If, after such hearing, the Executive Board or subcommittee still deems the congregation not to be in compliance or if no such hearing had been requested, the Executive Board, may suspend part or all of the services of the URJ to such congregation until such noncompliance is cured or terminate the membership.
     
  4. The Executive Board shall have the further power, after consideration of the recommendation of the Membership Committee and after notice to such congregation and an opportunity to be heard by either (a) the Executive Board or (b) at the Executive Board’s election a committee constituted by it to hear and report, to terminate the membership of any such congregation that has been suspended in accordance with Section C hereof. 

ARTICLE IV. GENERAL ASSEMBLY

  1. The legislative body of the URJ and its highest authority shall be the General Assembly, which shall be composed of representatives from each congregation comprising the URJ.
     
  2. Each congregation in good standing shall be entitled to two representatives and to such additional representation in the General Assembly as the bylaws may provide.
     
  3. At meetings of the General Assembly, each representative or recognized alternate will be entitled to one vote.

ARTICLE V. NORTH AMERICAN BOARD AND EXECUTIVE BOARD

  1. There is hereby established a North American Board (NAB) whose term of office, composition, and method of election will be as set forth in the bylaws.
  2. There is hereby established an Executive Board (EB) whose term of office, composition, and method of election will be as set forth in the bylaws.

ARTICLE Vl. CONGREGATIONAL AUTONOMY

Nothing contained in this constitution or the bylaws shall be construed so as to interfere in any manner whatsoever with the mode of worship, the school, the freedom of expression and opinion, or any of the other congregational activities of the constituent congregations of the URJ.

ARTICLE VII. AMENDMENTS

Amendments may be proposed by the NAB, EB, or a congregation if seconded by three other congregations. Notice and opportunity for comment will be given to congregations 60 days prior to any vote. The Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the NAB. 
 


Bylaws

ARTICLE I.

We stand for a Judaism that is inclusive of a wide range of identities, knowing that we will be a stronger, more vibrant Jewish community when we fully incorporate the diversity that is the reality of modern Jewish life. In that spirit, the composition of all URJ boards, committees, commissions, and task forces should demonstrate principles of equity, diversity, and inclusion and include members from the full range of our Reform Jewish community in all aspects, including race, gender, LGBTQ+, disabilities, and age. The URJ committees, commissions, and task forces should also be inclusive of the geographic diversity and congregational size diversity within our Movement, as well as the diversity of skills, lived experience, and expertise, with representation from those knowledgeable about URJ programs and operations, including camp, youth activities, social justice, and Israel.

ARTICLE II. NORTH AMERICAN BOARD  

  1. Purpose. The North American Board (herein referred to as the NAB) shall serve to shape the URJ’s future by participating in generative conversations, giving voice to the range of URJ constituencies and reflecting the Reform Movement’s diversity.
  2. Composition.
    1. Members-At-Large. There shall be up to 150 members-at-large of the NAB. Members-at-large shall have the power to vote and shall be elected by the General Assembly. 
    2. Executive Board Members. All Executive Board members shall automatically be members of the NAB and shall have the power to vote. 
    3. Ex-Officio Members. Ex-officio NAB members serve on the NAB by virtue of the office they hold. Ex-officio members of the NAB shall have the power to vote and shall be constituted as follows:
      1. The current URJ President.
      2. All past URJ Chairs.
      3. The Chair of the Board of Governors and the President of the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion.
      4. The senior lay leader and senior professional leader from recognized movement partners, professional organizations, and affiliates.
      5. The Chief Executive, President, and Vice President for Organizational Relationships of CCAR.   
    4. Honorary Members. The NAB shall have the power to elect as Honorary Members, such persons whose long and distinguished service has merited such consideration. Honorary Members shall not have the power to vote.
  3. Term. The term of service on the NAB shall be four years. Members will be eligible to apply for one additional four-year term. If a NAB member is appointed to fill a vacancy with more than 50% of the term remaining, that will count as a full term. Individuals may reapply to serve additional terms after a two-year hiatus.
  4. Duties. The NAB shall have responsibility for:
    1. Mobilizing the Reform Movement to carry out the purpose and mission of the URJ.
    2. Giving voice to Reform Movement diversity to shape the future of the URJ.
    3. Seeking to increase the financial and human resources available to the URJ.
    4. Identifying and developing new leaders.
    5. In addition, the NAB is empowered to vote on:
      1. Election of the URJ President. 
      2. Election of the URJ Officers.
      3. Election of members of the Executive Board.
      4. Change in the mission or purpose of the URJ, or merger of the URJ.
      5. Taking positions on major issues of public policy unless the URJ Chair determines that emergency circumstances require that such action be taken by the Executive Board and that a special meeting of the NAB is not practical to decide the issue within the necessary time constraints.
      6. Admission of congregations as members of the URJ.
  5. Meetings.
    1. The NAB shall meet at such time and place and in such manner as the URJ Chair shall designate, provided that the NAB shall meet no less than twice per calendar year with at least one meeting in person when possible. Meetings of the NAB may take place in person, by conference call, by authorized communications equipment, or by such other means as the URJ Chair shall direct. At any meeting of the NAB conducted other than in person, voting may take place by authorized communications equipment as directed by the URJ Chair. Special meetings of the NAB shall be held at the written request of twenty (20) of the members thereof or when the URJ Chair shall so order. Fifty (50) members of the Board shall constitute a quorum.
    2. Except when confidential or other such sensitive issues are discussed, members of Reform congregations in the URJ, who are not members of the NAB, may attend meetings of the NAB as observers and may attend, as observers, meetings of URJ committees, commissions and task forces in which they do not participate as members.
  6. Resignation and Removal. A member of the NAB may resign at any time by giving written notice to the URJ Chair, and their resignation shall be effective upon receipt. A member of the NAB may be removed for cause by a vote of a majority of the EB.
  7. Vacancies. All vacancies among the members-at-large, however caused, may be filled by a nomination of the URJ Chair and approved by a vote of a majority of EB, to fill the remainder of the unexpired term.
  8. Eligibility. No person shall be eligible to serve as a member of the NAB unless they are a Jewish member of a constituent congregation of the URJ, the Jewish spouse or child of such a member, or a clergy of such a congregation.

ARTICLE III. EXECUTIVE BOARD

  1. Purpose. The Executive Board (herein referred to as the EB) shall be responsible for the governance and oversight of the URJ. Operating at both the fiduciary and strategic levels, the EB shall engage the NAB in generative conversations about the future vision for the Reform Movement and rely on its members to provide input, insights, and representative voices to enrich and inform decisions. Any powers not assigned to the NAB or General Assembly are held by the EB.
     
  2. Eligibility and Composition. The EB shall consist of between twenty-five and thirty members plus specified nonvoting members as follows:
    1. URJ Officers serving in the positions of Chair, Vice Chair and Treasurer.
    2. The immediate past URJ Chair.
    3. Four District Chairs.
    4. At-large members as determined by the EB Nominating Committee.
    5. The President of the Reform Jewish Community of Canada, as a voting member.
    6. A person designated by Hebrew Union College--Jewish Institute of Religion, as a non-voting participant. 
    7. A person designated by the Central Conference of American Rabbis, as a nonvoting participant.
    8. A person designated by the American Conference of Cantors (ACC), as a nonvoting participant.
    9. Any individual may be invited at the URJ Chair’s discretion to attend one or more meetings of the EB.
       
  3. Election and Terms. 
    1. District Chairs and at-large members of the EB shall be elected by the NAB from among its membership at the first meeting of the NAB after the new members-at-large have been elected by the General Assembly.
    2. The term of service on the EB shall be two years. Members will be eligible to apply for two additional two-year terms.
    3. EB members will also be eligible to apply for one term on the NAB immediately after their EB service has ended.
       
  4. Duties.
    1. The property, business, and operational affairs of the URJ shall be conducted by the EB, including the power to establish guidelines and policy to carry out the functions of the URJ, provided that (i) such guidelines and policies are consistent with the Constitution and Bylaws of the URJ, and (ii) the EB shall not be empowered to act in those areas specifically reserved for the NAB enumerated in Article 2 of the Bylaws.
    2. All EB members shall automatically serve as members of the NAB.
       
  5. Meetings. The EB shall meet at such time and place and in such manner as the URJ Chair will designate. Meetings of the EB may take place in person, by conference call, by authorized communications equipment or by such other means as the URJ Chair will direct. At any meeting of the EB conducted other than in person, voting may take place by electronic means in such manner as the URJ Chair will direct. Eighteen (18) members of the EB shall constitute a quorum.
    1. In exceptional circumstances, eighteen (18) EB members may call an emergency meeting of the EB.
       
  6. Resignation and Removal. A member of the EB may resign at any time by giving written notice to the URJ Chair, and their resignation shall be effective upon receipt. A member of the EB may be removed for cause by a vote of a majority of the EB.
     
  7. Vacancies. All vacancies of the EB shall be filled by the URJ Chair and affirmed by the EB for the remainder of the unexpired term.

ARTICLE IV. URJ OFFICERS

  1. Positions. The URJ Officers shall consist of a URJ Chair, four Vice Chairs, a Secretary, and a Treasurer.
     
  2. Nomination. The EB Nominating Committee shall be responsible for making nominations for the offices of URJ Chair, Vice Chairs, and Treasurer.
     
  3. Election. The URJ Chair, the Vice Chairs, and Treasurer shall be elected by the NAB from among its membership at the first meeting of the NAB after the new members-at-large have been elected by the General Assembly.
     
  4. Terms.
    1. The URJ Chair shall serve a term of four years and is limited to one term. Other Officers shall serve a term of two years, limited to two consecutive terms in any particular office. 
    2. Officers serving as Vice Chairs and Treasurer are again eligible to serve on the EB after a two-year hiatus if not serving in another officer role.
    3. If an officer is appointed to fill a vacancy with more than 50% of the term remaining, that will count as a full term.
       
  5. Vacancies. All vacancies among the Officer positions, however caused, may be filled by a recommendation of the URJ Chair and approved by a vote of a majority of the EB, for the remainder of the unexpired term.
     
  6. Duties.
    1. The URJ Chair shall preside at meetings of the NAB and the EB. The URJ Chair shall preside at meetings of the General Assembly and shall have the power to designate a URJ Officer to preside over such meetings from time to time. The URJ Chair shall appoint the various committees of the NAB and the EB. In the absence or other unavailability of the URJ Chair, a URJ Officer designated by the URJ Chair or the EB will act as URJ Chair.
    2. The URJ Chair and the URJ President shall be ex-officio members of all task forces, commissions, and committees of the URJ.
    3. The URJ Vice Chairs shall perform such duties as may be assigned to them and shall exercise such powers as may be invested in them by the NAB or by the URJ Chair. 
    4. The Treasurer shall be an ex-officio member of the Budget Committee and the Committee on Endowments and Trust Funds. The Treasurer shall have custody of the funds of the URJ, other than those referred to the Committee on Endowments and Trust Funds and shall cause the same to be received and disbursed in accordance with directives of the EB or the duly authorized officers and committees of the URJ. The Treasurer shall cause to be kept books and accounts reflecting all receipts and disbursements of the URJ and shall report the financial condition of the URJ at each regular meeting of the NAB.
    5. The URJ Secretary shall maintain the records of the corporation and shall be a URJ staff member appointed by the URJ President.
       
  7. URJ President. The URJ President shall be a Reform Jew and shall serve as the URJ chief executive officer. The URJ President will report to the NAB, the EB, and the General Assembly at each of their regular meetings.

ARTICLE V. CONFERENCE OF PRESIDENTS

The presidents of the congregations affiliated with the URJ shall meet in conference at the call of the URJ Chair at such time and place that they may designate. The Conference shall serve as an advisory body to the URJ and may present recommendations to the NAB. Reports on the recommendations of the Conference shall be made by the NAB either to a succeeding Conference or to the General Assembly of the URJ, or to both.

ARTICLE VI. FISCAL YEAR

The fiscal year is the calendar year.

ARTICLE VII. BUDGET

Not later than the regular meeting of the EB prior to the close of each fiscal year, a budget will be submitted to the EB for the next fiscal year. The budget and any additional monetary appropriations will require the affirmative vote of the majority of the members of the EB. The budget may be amended from time to time by a majority vote of the EB. The budget shall be presented annually to the NAB.

ARTICLE VIII. COMMITTEES

  1. Membership Committee. The URJ Chair shall appoint a Membership Committee, which shall be duly representative of the congregations and the institutions of the Movement, to review the system established under Article X. This Membership Committee shall review the entire system of financial support and make recommendations to ensure that the system is duly reflective of the financial health of the congregations and the overall needs of the URJ and the College-Institute.  Subject to the approval of the EB, the Membership Committee shall establish policies and procedures governing the foregoing system, shall monitor compliance with such policies and procedures, and shall make recommendations to the EB as to when changes in the foregoing system should be made.
     
  2. NAB Nominating Committee.
    1. Within twelve months prior to the date appointed for the convening of a regular meeting of the General Assembly, the URJ Chair, with the advice and consent of the NAB, shall appoint a NAB Nominating Committee, whose duty it shall be to present to the General Assembly a list of nominees to be considered for election as members-at-large.
    2. Before consideration of nominees by the NAB Nominating Committee and at least sixty (60) days prior to the date appointed for the convening of the meeting of the General Assembly, the chair of the NAB Nominating Committee shall notify each constituent congregation and each affiliate of the URJ about the composition of the NAB Nominating Committee and request, on an advisory basis, names for its consideration. A list of the nominees ultimately proposed by the NAB Nominating Committee shall be sent to each constituent congregation at least thirty (30) days prior to the date appointed for the convening of the meeting of the General Assembly. Any thirty delegates present at the General Assembly may submit to the NAB Nominating Committee at any time during the first plenary session additional nominations for members-at-large. The NAB Nominating Committee shall report to the General Assembly the names of all nominees for balloting, with its recommendations.
    3. With the exception of District Chairs, no candidate for election to the NAB shall be eligible to serve on the NAB Nominating Committee.
       
  3. Executive Board Nominating Committee. The URJ Chair shall appoint an EB Nominating Committee not later than seven months prior to the expiration of the current terms of the members of the EB whose duty it shall be to present to the full NAB a list of nominees to be considered for election of URJ Officers, District Chairs, and members-at-large of the EB.
    1. With the exception of District Chairs, no candidate for election to the EB shall be eligible to serve on the EB Nominating Committee.
       
  4. Committee on Endowments and Trust Funds. The URJ Chair shall appoint no fewer than five members of the NAB, exclusive of ex-officio members of such committee, as a Committee on Endowments and Trust Funds. Said committee shall be vested with the custody and control of all trust funds, trust securities, and trust property of the URJ. Said committee shall have full power and authority to sell and dispose of all funds and securities and trust property that may come into its hands as above provided and to invest and reinvest the proceeds thereof, and its chair or vice chair shall have full authority to sign any and all transfers, instruments, and papers that may be necessary or required whenever they are so empowered by resolution of the committee. Such power and authority shall be exercised by said committee by a vote of not less than a majority of the whole committee.
     
  5. Resolutions Committee.
    1. The URJ Chair shall appoint a Resolutions Committee of not less than thirty (30) nor more than fifty (50) members, no more than one-half of whom may be members of the NAB, to serve until the Spring meeting of the NAB that immediately precedes the meeting of the General Assembly. The URJ Chair shall designate the chair and fill vacancies.
    2. All resolutions to be acted upon by the General Assembly shall be presented as follows:
      1. Resolutions may be initiated by presentation to the Resolutions Committee by a constituent congregation, the NAB, an affiliate, or a commission not less than ninety (90) days prior to the date appointed for the convening of the General Assembly. All such resolutions shall be considered by the Resolutions Committee, which shall have the power to endorse them, recommend rejection of them, or suggest revisions thereof. All resolutions so submitted, in original form or as changed with the consent of the proposers, will be reported to the constituent congregations not less than sixty (60) days prior to the date appointed for the convening of the General Assembly, together with the recommendations of the Resolutions Committee, including any suggested changes or substitutes and reasons thereof. Proposed amendments to such reported resolutions may be submitted to the Resolutions Committee at least ten (10) days prior to the date appointed for the convening of the General Assembly.
      2. The Resolutions Committee shall meet at least forty-eight hours prior to the opening of the first scheduled plenary session to consider such resolutions and any suggested amendments thereto, at which time proposers of the resolutions or amendments will have an opportunity to be heard.
      3. Resolutions may be submitted to the Resolutions Committee by petition of the majority of the registered delegates of each of at least five constituent congregations not later than the end of the plenary session of the second day of the General Assembly.
      4. Additional resolutions may be presented to the General Assembly at any time during the meeting of the General Assembly by the Resolutions Committee and by other committees of the General Assembly appointed by the URJ Chair.
    3. All resolutions referred or submitted to the Resolutions Committee of the General Assembly will be considered by said committee, and such resolutions as it approves, either as originally proposed or as modified, will be recommended by it to the General Assembly for consideration and passage. The Resolutions Committee shall also report any resolutions rejected by it or on which it failed to act, and these resolutions may not be considered by the General Assembly except upon the affirmative vote of the majority of delegates present and voting without debate.
    4. The adoption of resolutions recommended to the General Assembly by the Resolutions Committee shall require the affirmative vote of a majority of the delegates present and voting. Amendments to such resolutions that were previously submitted to the Resolutions Committee prior to the ten-day period described in subsection (E)(2)(i) of this article, if properly submitted to the General Assembly for consideration, shall require the affirmative vote of a majority of the delegates present and voting. Amendments to such resolutions that were not previously submitted to the Resolutions Committee prior to such ten-day period will be considered by the General Assembly only upon the affirmative vote of a majority of the delegates present and voting without debate. The adoption of resolutions presented to the General Assembly pursuant to subsections (E)(2) or (3) of this article shall require the affirmative vote of three-fifths of the delegates present and voting.
       
  6. Audit Committee.
    1. The URJ books shall be audited at least once a year by an independent auditor.
    2. The Audit Committee shall be responsible for the appointment, compensation and oversight of the independent auditor, and the independent auditor shall report directly to the Audit Committee. The URJ Chair shall appoint an Audit Committee consisting of no fewer than five members of the NAB, one or more of whom shall have expertise in accounting and financial matters. No member of the Audit Committee shall be an employee of the URJ.
    3. The primary duties and responsibilities of the Audit Committee shall be to monitor and review the adequacy of the URJ's internal controls and financial reporting processes, the reliability of the URJ's periodic financial statements, and the qualifications, independence and performance of the URJ's independent auditor.
    4. The Audit Committee shall meet periodically with management and with the independent auditor to discuss and consider the audited and/or unaudited periodic financial statements of the URJ, including any material accounting issues considered or resolved in connection with the preparation of those financial statements and the adequacy and effectiveness of the URJ's internal controls over financial reporting and the financial reporting process.
    5. The Audit Committee shall have the right, if it chooses, to retain independent counsel or other professionals. In the event the Audit Committee elects to retain such counsel or professionals, the Audit Committee shall promptly advise the Officers and EB. 
    6. The Audit Committee shall report to the EB no less than annually on its activities.
       
  7. Membership Policy Review Committee. There shall be a Membership Policy Review Committee, as provided for in Article X.
     
  8. Budget Committee. The URJ Chair shall appoint a Budget Committee consisting of no fewer than five members of the NAB, exclusive of ex-officio members of such committee. Not later than the regular meeting of the EB next preceding the close of each fiscal year, the Budget Committee shall submit to the EB for its action a comprehensive and detailed budget for the next fiscal year. The budget and any additional monetary appropriations shall require the affirmative vote of the majority of the members of the EB present and voting at the meeting. In connection with its work, the Budget Committee may require the councils, commissions, and affiliates of the URJ and other interested parties to submit their respective budget requests by such time as the Budget Committee shall specify. The budget may be amended from time to time by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members of the EB present and voting at a duly constituted meeting thereof.

ARTICLE IX. BANK DEPOSITS

All banks of deposit for URJ funds and all banks of deposit for revolving funds for the various departments of the URJ shall be named by the EB. Checks, drafts, and other instruments for the withdrawal of funds shall bear such signature or signatures as may be determined from time to time by the EB.

ARTICLE X. REFORM MOVEMENT AFFILIATION COMMITMENT

  1. Each constituent congregation of the URJ shall be obligated to pay as its Reform Movement Affiliation Commitment into the treasury of the URJ, exclusive of the contributions made to or on behalf of the URJ by its individual congregational members or from other sources, for each fiscal year beginning with congregational fiscal year commencing on or after January 1, 2016, a percentage designated by the Membership Policy Review Committee of the congregation’s defined operating revenues for the congregation’s prior fiscal year. The designated percentage shall be reviewed by the Membership Policy Review Committee every two years (the designated percentage for the first two years is four percent (4%)). The term “defined operating revenues” is intended to include all gross revenues of the congregation used to support the day-to-day operations of the congregation, including yearly withdrawals from endowed and/or restricted funds that are used to support operations. Excluded from the definition of defined operating revenues for purposes of this calculation are revenues received from a congregation’s day school, early childhood or camp programs, cemeteries and contributions to the corpus of endowments, restricted funds and/or building funds as well as funds that are received and directly passed on to another organization.  The congregation shall provide documentation of its defined operating revenues in accordance with policies specified by the Membership Policy Review Committee and shall make payments periodically in accordance with policies established by the Membership Policy Review Committee.
     
  2. A congregation which is experiencing financial difficulty in making the payments specified in Article X Section A may request relief from some or all of its payment obligations. The Membership Committee shall establish and publicly promulgate policies and procedures governing requests for such relief and the standards under which such relief may be granted. The President of the URJ or their designee is authorized to agree to such relief with a specific congregation so long as such relief is in accordance with the policies established by the Membership Committee. The Membership Committee shall monitor any agreements providing such relief to assure compliance with stated policies.  Any agreement for relief which is not in accordance with policies specified by the Membership Committee may take place only in unusual circumstances and must be specifically approved by the EB. 
     
  3. In the event that a congregation is not in compliance with the Bylaws of the URJ with respect to payments and after a reasonable period of time in which to cure such noncompliance, the URJ Chair, after consultation with the URJ President, may recommend to the EB that notice be given to the congregation of the intention to recommend suspension from of all or part of the services received by the congregation from the URJ.  Such notice will be issued upon approval by the EB.  If, within thirty (30) days of the receipt of notice, such congregation requests a hearing, one will be granted and held by the EB or a subcommittee thereof.  If, after such hearing, the EB or subcommittee still deems the congregation not to be in compliance or if no such hearing had been requested, the EB, may suspend part or all of the services of the URJ to such congregation until such noncompliance is cured or terminate the membership.

ARTICLE XI. AUTHORITY TO ACCEPT GIFTS, ETC.

The URJ's gift acceptance policy (the term "gift" includes, but is not limited to, legacies, bequests, devises, gifts, and other receipts of such nature) is that set forth in policies and procedures adopted by the EB.

ARTICLE XII. MEETINGS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

  1. Regular meetings of the General Assembly shall be held biennially at such time and place as the General Assembly or the EB may determine. Special meetings of the General Assembly may be called by the URJ Chair and shall be called by them upon written request by the majority of all members of the EB or upon written request by fifty (50) constituent congregations.
     
  2. A quorum of the General Assembly shall exist if the registered delegates or their alternates represent at least one-fourth of all constituent congregations and at least one hundred (100) of the registered delegates or their alternates are present at the meeting.
     
  3. Each constituent congregation that has paid the prescribed minimum dues or whose dues deficiency, if any, has been waived by the EB shall be entitled to representation in the General Assembly. Each such congregation shall be entitled to two delegates and one additional delegate for every one hundred members, or major fraction thereof, over and above the first one hundred.
     
  4. Each congregation entitled to representation in the General Assembly shall be entitled to an alternate for each delegate who may exercise the powers of the delegate during the latter's absence in the manner and to the extent set forth in these bylaws.  
     
  5. All delegates must register and pay the registration fee, if any, to be entitled to vote or otherwise participate in the General Assembly.
     
  6. The General Assembly may meet in-person or by authorized communications equipment and may conduct voting in-person or by authorized communications equipment.
     
  7. No delegate to the General Assembly shall be permitted to vote on any question unless such delegate has been duly accredited by the congregation the delegate represents.
     
  8. Members of the NAB and the Board of Governors of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion will be ex-officio delegates to the General Assembly, with the right to vote. Honorary members of the above-named boards shall be considered honorary delegates to the General Assembly but without the privilege of voting.
     
  9. Except as otherwise provided herein, meetings of the General Assembly shall be conducted in accordance with parliamentary usage as set forth in the latest revised edition of Robert's Rules of Order.

ARTICLE XIII. BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE HEBREW UNION COLLEGE- JEWISH INSTITUTE OF RELIGION

  1. The URJ, being the patron body of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, is entitled by law to elect a majority of the membership of the Board of Governors of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion. Such members shall be elected biennially for a period of four years and shall serve until their successors are elected and qualified.
     
  2. Any vacancy occurring on the Board of Governors among those elected by the URJ shall be filled by the URJ.
     
  3. The URJ Chair and the URJ President shall be elected to the Board of Governors as part of the quota of members that the Board of Trustees is entitled to elect, but they shall hold office as members of the Board of Governors only so long as they hold the offices in the URJ referred to above.

ARTICLE XIV. AFFILIATES

  1. The URJ has the power to create, designate and sponsor affiliates whose primary purpose is to strengthen the URJ and to serve the cause of Judaism. Each affiliate may enact, for the administration of its affairs, rules and regulations not inconsistent with the URJ Constitution and Bylaws or with any decision of the General Assembly, the NAB or the EB. No affiliate is permitted to adopt a name or to change its name without the prior approval of the EB.
     
  2. The URJ Chair and the URJ President shall be ex-officio members of the EB of each affiliate.
     
  3. All members of the staff of each affiliate shall be members of the URJ staff. No person shall be elected to the office of executive secretary or its equivalent of any affiliate except after consultation with the URJ Chair and URJ President.
     
  4. Each affiliate shall submit its budget to the URJ for the URJ’s approval.
     
  5. No affiliate shall adopt any resolution on a matter of general public interest, or institute any new policy, or initiate any project without consultation with the URJ Chair or URJ President or their designated representatives.
     
  6. In the event that a mutually satisfactory conclusion cannot be reached as a result of the above consultation, such matter shall be referred for decision to a committee of five, two of whom shall be appointed by the URJ Chair and two by the president of the respective affiliate, and the four so appointed shall select the fifth member from the NAB, who shall act as an impartial arbitrator.
     
  7. The foregoing principles, appropriately paraphrased, will be incorporated into the constitution of each affiliate that is created.
     
  8. Each of the affiliates will annually report its activities to the NAB.

ARTICLE XV. URJ COUNCILS

  1. The URJ shall continue to have the power to establish councils of the URJ upon a regional or a local basis as the URJ may from time to time determine. The name of each council shall be such as has been heretofore or shall hereafter be approved by the NAB. The ultimate goal of the now-existing councils and those that may be hereafter established is the further strengthening of the URJ, and in order to bring about complete integration between the URJ and its councils, the following principles governing their relationship are established:
    1. The URJ Chair and the URJ President shall be ex-officio members of the Executive Committee of each council.
    2. The URJ President shall appoint an executive director and any other professional personnel that they shall deem necessary and that the NAB or the EB shall approve. All such professional personnel shall be members of the staff of the URJ and their salaries shall be fixed and paid by the URJ. The executive director shall be appointed by the president only after consultation with the Executive Committee of the council involved, and such appointment shall be subject to confirmation by the NAB or the EB of the URJ.
    3. No council shall adopt any resolution on a matter of general public interest or initiate any new policy or project without the authority of the NAB, the URJ Chair, or the URJ President.
    4. The expenditures of councils shall be in accordance with the budget adopted by the NAB in the manner provided in these bylaws. All funds collected by such councils shall be remitted to the URJ, except as may be otherwise ordered by the NAB.
    5. The foregoing principles, appropriately paraphrased, shall be incorporated into the constitution or other basic law of each council now or hereafter created.

ARTICLE XVI. AMENDMENTS

Amendments may be proposed by the NAB, EB, or a congregation if seconded by three other congregations. Notice and opportunity for comment will be given to congregations 60 days prior to any vote. The Bylaws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the NAB.